Increasing fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions in road transport is the main agenda of the heavy-duty automotive industry, which is the locomotive of road freight transport in Europe. Fuel efficiency is one of the most important competitive factors affecting the sales figures of heavy-duty vehicles such as trucks and trailers. A regulatory requirement has arisen for standardized measurement and validation of fuel efficiency and CO2 emission rates of heavy-duty vehicles and vehicle combinations of many types, shapes, and sizes. In 2018, a standardized computer simulation (VECTO) was published by the European Union that provides the calculation of CO2 emission values and fuel efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles. VECTO provides market customers with the opportunity to compare heavy-duty vehicle offers and select the most efficient vehicle combination according to their operational needs. In this article, studies containing information about VECTO in the literature were compiled and the potential of VECTO in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was examined.